Strongest Brain focuses on students’ brain health and performance. Strongest Brain understands that every student is facing deadly competitions and suffering heavy burdens both in school and after school. We use the highest and latest neuroscience technology to support students’ memory, concentration, focus, alertness, creativeness, and emotion.
Our ingredients are pure active components exacted from herbals by the most advanced separation technology in cGMP facilities. All ingredients have been clinically studied and found to improve memory, recall, concentration, and alertness.
Strongest Brain is scientifically formulated to provide maximum support and nourishment to cerebral functions of memory, focus, and recall. Ginkgo Biloba is well known for brain allover wellness. Huperzine A is clinically tested for neuroprotective. Rosemary and Gotu Kola are highly antioxidant. Essential neurotransmitters of Phosphatidyl Serine, L-Glutamine, and Choline support brain cell communication.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that transmit signals across a synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another “target” neuron. Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into the synaptic cleft, where they are received by receptors on other synapses.Neurotransmitters play a major role in shaping everyday life and functions. Neurons expressing certain types of neurotransmitters sometimes form distinct systems, where activation of the system affects large volumes of the brain, called volume transmission.
Ginkgo is often used for memory disorders including Alzheimer’s disease. It is also used for conditions that seem to be due to reduced blood flow in the brain, especially in older people. These conditions include memory loss, headache, ringing in the ears,vertigo, difficulty concentrating, mood disturbances, and hearing disorders. Some people use it for other problems related to poor blood flow in the body, including leg pain when walking (claudication), and Raynaud’s syndrome (a painful response to cold, especially in the fingers and toes).
Constituents: Flavonoids (glycosides) and terpenoids (ginkgolide, bilobalide) are considered to be Ginkgo’s primary active components. Other constituents include 6-hydroxykynurenic acid. Most studies have been conducted with the standardized Ginkgo preparation EGb 761 (24% ginkgo flavone glycosides, 6% terpenoids), or LI 1370 (25% ginkgo flavone glycosides, 6% terpenoids).
The pharmcaceutical quality of different Ginkgo biloba brands has been investigated. It was determined that many available brands do not have levels of certain constituents equivalent to those stated in the German Commission E Ginkgo monograph (for example, flavone glycosides, terpenlactones, and ginkgolides).
Antioxidant/Anti-inflammatory effects: Ginkgo significantly decreased platelet MDA-thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, in supplemented humans. Flavonoids serve as free-radical scavengers and have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in human models. This mechanism is hypothesized to reduce oxidative cellular damage in Alzheimer’s disease and has prompted theories that Ginkgo may have favorable effects on reperfusion injury. Ginkgolides inhibit receptor binding of platelet activating factor (PAF), which may mediate beneficial clinical effects. PAF is pro-inflammatory, induces platelet aggregation, and contracts bronchial smooth muscle. Ginkgo has been found to increase corticosteroid secretion in rats.
Coagulation effects: Ginkgo biloba extract decreased plasma D-dimer concentration, a marker of intravascular coagulation, in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. Blood levels of fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, hs-CRP, albumin and liver enzyme levels were not significantly changed. No bleeding episode was reported. These results suggested that Ginkgo biloba extract was effective in partially reversing the thrombogenic coagulation profile without increasing the risk of bleeding. A controlled clinical trial found that dry extract of Ginkgo biloba reduced blood viscosity more than Allium sativum (garlic).5 In a study in male subjects, Ginkgo use had no effect on international normalized ratio of prothrombin time or platelet aggregation. In combination with warfarin, Ginkgo at recommended doses did not significantly affect clotting status, or the pharmacokinetics, or pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects.
CYP450 effects: Based on an open-label study, significant decreases in midazolam concentrations following Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) administration suggested that GBE may induce CYP3A metabolism.10 Lopinavir, ritonavir, and fexofenadine exposures were not significantly affected by GBE administration.
MAOI effects: Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition by Ginkgo has been reported in animals6 but has not been confirmed by subsequent animal research.7 One human study did not demonstrate significant changes in human brain MAO A or B, measured by positron emission tomography after one month of 120mg Ginkgo daily in a small human sample.8
Neurotransmitter effects: Neuroprotective properties have been attributed to inhibition of age-related decline of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors. Ginkgo has been found to increase serotonin levels, increase muscarinic binding sites, and increase serum levels of acetylcholine and norepinephrine.58
Ocular effects: Although improved vision was observed in a case report3, no effect of Ginkgo on ocular blood flow was observed in clinical study.
Platelet inhibitory effects: Ginkgo supplementation inhibited platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers. In vitro, Ginkgo inhibited platelet aggregation.
Vascular effects: Ginkgo has been found to have vasodilatory effects, which have been attributed to stimulation of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and prostacyclin release. Studies have suggested that Ginkgo inhibits nitric oxide, causing vascular relaxation. In a controlled single-blind study of 10 healthy human subjects, and a controlled crossover study of patients with known claudication, Ginkgo was shown to significantly increase blood capillary flow and decrease erythrocyte aggregation.
Other: An in vitro study has demonstrated Ginkgo to promote proliferation of human skin fibroblasts. Ginkgo biloba extract promotes EPC proliferative, migratory, adhesive, and in vitro vasculogenesis capacity, therefore, promoting EPC augmentation and enhancing its functional activity.
Huperzine A (Huperzia serrata)
Huperzine A is a substance purified from a plant called Chinese club moss. Although the makers of huperzine A start with a plant, their product is the result of a lot of laboratory manipulation. It is a highly purified drug, unlike herbs that typically contain hundreds of chemical ingredients. As a result, some people regard huperzine A as a drug, and they argue that it stretches the guidelines of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA).
Huperzine A is used for Alzheimer’s disease, memory and learning enhancement, and age-related memory impairment. It is also used for treating a muscle disease calledmyasthenia gravis, for increasing alertness and energy, and for protecting against agents that damage the nerves such as nerve gases.
Products that combine huperzine A with certain drugs used for treating Alzheimer’s disease are being studied. These “hybrid” products are of interest because they may be effective at lower doses and, therefore, cause fewer side effects. One hybrid, called huprine X, combines huperzine A with the drug donepezil. Another hybrid being studied contains huperzine A and the drug tacrine.
How does it work?
Huperzine A is thought to be beneficial for problems with memory, loss of mental abilities (dementia), and the muscular disorder myasthenia gravis because it causes an increase in the levels of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is one of the chemicals that our nerves use to communicate in the brain, muscles, and other areas.
· Dementia. Some research suggests that taking huperzine A by mouth for up to 8 weeks may improve memory, mental function, and behavior in people with conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease or dementia. The long-term effects of huperizine A in people with these conditions is not yet known.
· Memory. Some research shows that taking huperzine A by mouth for 4 weeks improves the memory older children and teenagers who complain of memory problems.
· Mental Impairment. Early research suggests that taking huperzine A by mouth for 12 weeks might improve memory in adults with mild cognitive (mental) impairment.
· A muscular disorder called myasthenia gravis. Early research suggests that giving huperzine A intramuscularly for 10 days may prevent muscle weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis and may have equal or longer lasting effects compared to intramuscular neostigmine.
· Age-related memory loss.
· Increasing alertness and energy.
· Protection from agents poisonous to nerves.
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a fragrant evergreen herb native to the Mediterranean. It is used as a culinary condiment, to make bodily perfumes, and for its potential health benefits.
· Rich source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds– these are thought to help boost the immune system and improve blood circulation. Laboratory studies have shown rosemary to be rich in antioxidants, which play an important role in neutralizing harmful particles called free radicals.
· Improving digestion – In Europe rosemary is often used to help treat indigestion – Germany’s Commission E has approved it for the treatment of dyspepsia. However, it should be noted that there is currently no meaningful scientific evidence to support this claim.
· Enhancing memory and concentration – blood levels of a rosemary oil component correlate with improved cognitive performance, according to research in Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology, published by SAGE.
· Neurological protection – scientists have found that rosemary is also good for your brain. Rosemary contains an ingredient, carnosic acid, that is able to fight off free radical damage in the brain.
· According to a study published in Cell Journal, carnosic acid “may be useful in protecting against beta amyloid-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus.”1
· Prevent brain aging – Kyoto University researchers in Japan revealed thatrosemary may significantly help prevent brain aging.
· Cancer – Research published in Oncolocy Reports found that “crude ethanolic rosemary extract (RO) has differential anti-proliferative effects on human leukemia and breast carcinoma cells.”2
· Protection against macular degeneration – a study published in the journal Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, led by Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D. and colleagues at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, revealed that a major component of rosemary, carnosic acid, can significantly promote eye health.
Gotu kola is also used for fatigue, anxiety, depression, psychiatric disorders,Alzheimer’s disease, and improving memory and intelligence. Other uses include wound healing, trauma, and circulation problems (venous insufficiency) including varicose veins, and blood clots in the legs.
Gotu kola contains certain chemicals that seem to decrease inflammation and also decrease blood pressure in veins. Gotu kola also seems to increase collagen production, which is important for wound healing.
Constituents: The purported active components of gotu kola, accounting for 1-8% of the constituents, include asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, asiaticoside A, and asiaticoside B.21 The leaves of Centella asiatica have also been reported to contain 170mg calcium, 30mg phosphorous, 3.1mg iron, 414mg potassium, 6.58mg beta-carotene, 0.15mg thiamine, 0.14mg riboflavin, 1.2mg niacin, and 4mg asorbic acid.21
Alzheimer’s disease effects: Asiaticoside derivatives, including asiatic acid and asiaticoside 6, were shown to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death, decrease free radical concentrations, and inhibit beta amyloid cell death in vitro, suggesting a possible role for gotu kola in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and beta amyloid toxicity.
Antioxidant effects: Asiaticoside derivatives, including asiatic acid and asiaticoside 6, were shown to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death, decrease free radical concentrations, and inhibit beta amyloid cell death in vitro, suggesting a possible role for gotu kola in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and beta amyloid toxicity.1
Anti-gastric ulcer activity: In rats, extract of Centella asiatica significantly inhibited gastric ulceration induced by cold and resistant stress, similar to the inhibition caused by famotidine and sodium valproate.5 The titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) has been shown to have protective and therapeutic effects on gastric mucosal damage in rats.6 Fresh juice of Centella asiatica given in doses of 200 or 600mg/kg twice daily for five days was shown to have protective activity against gastric ulcers induced by ethanol, aspirin, cold-restraint stress, and pyloric ligation.7 The higher dose resulted in significantly increased mucin secretion and mucous formation, while significantly decreasing cell shedding.
Anti-inflammatory effects: In rats, Madecassol was shown to decrease the severity of radiation-induced dermatitis vs. control.14
Anti-fertility effects: Animal study shows a consistent reduction of fertility in female mice after the ingestion of isothankuniside and its derivative BK compound, both of which are isolated from Centella asiatica.
Antimicrobial effects: An in vitro study of Centella asiatica powder found no activity against the acid-fastness or viability of M. tuberculosis, despite its use in the treatment of leprosy (M. leprae). A subsequent in vitro study found asiaticoside to have little microbicidal activity against M. tuberculosis or M. leprae; however, when incorporated into liposomal form, the microbicidal activity of asiaticoside was greatly increased. Centella asiatica extract and asiaticoside are active against herpes simplex virus in vitro.
Antineoplastic effects: In vitro, partially purified fractions of Centella asiatica crude extract significantly inhibit proliferation of cancerous cells in a dose-dependent fashion, with no toxic effects to human lymphocytes.4 In mice, oral administration of both crude extract of Centella asiatica and partially purified fractions of the crude extract slow the development of solid and ascites tumors, and increase the lifespan of mice, with possible action directly on DNA synthesis.
Anxiolytic properties: Bradwejn et al. performed a double-blind, placebo controlled trial to study the effects of gotu kola on acoustic startle response (ASR), a validated instrument used to measure levels of anxiety. At 30 and 60 minutes after intervention, subjects who consumed 12g dose of gotu kola (from crude herb capsules, Nature’s Way Canada, Ltd.) mixed in 300mL of grape juice experienced a significant decrease in their ASR, suggesting the possible ability of gotu kola to decrease anxiety. The small sample size and use of healthy (non-anxious) subjects limit the application of these data, but do suggest that gotu kola may possess anxiolytic properties. Although gotu kola has been studied for anxiety, the exact mechanism of action remains unclear.
Cardiovascular effects: In an investigation of oral Centellase (TTFCA 60mg three times daily) to stabilize carotid plaques, it was reported that TTFCA regulated and modulated collagen production over the 12-month study period.
Hepatic effects: A randomized controlled trial showed that a combination product (CognoBlend® containing Bacopa monneria, Gingko biloba, cat’s claw, gotu kola, rosemary) may be an effective adjunct treatment for patients with liver cirrhosis, although a mechanism of synergistic action in this study is unclear.
Hepatic effects (hepatotoxicity): Researchers have hypothesized that gotu kola may contain di- or triterpenic active principles, which can produce hepatic injury by promoting apoptosis and altering cell membranes.
Neuroprotective effects: The effect of chloroform: methanolic (80:20) extract of Centella asiatica (CA; 100 and 200mg/kg), was evaluated on the course of free radical generation and excitotoxicity in monosodiumglutamate (MSG) treated female Sprague Dawley rats. The extract showed significant improvement in catalase, super oxide desmutase, and lipid peroxides levels in hippocampus and striatum regions. Glutathione level was not altered with CA treatment. Similar observation was made with dextromethorphan. The general behavior, locomotor activity, and CAl a region of the hippocampus was significantly protected by CA indicating neuroprotective effect of CA in MSG induced excitotoxic condition. Hence it can be concluded that CA protected MSG induced neurodegeneration attributed to its antioxidant and behavioural properties. The researchers concluded that this activity of Centella asiatica can be explored in epilepsy, stroke and other degenerative conditions in which the role of glutamate is known to play vital role in the pathogenesis.
Vascular effects: A controlled study in 21 subjects with postphlebitic limbs or lymphedema reports that daily Centellase (TTFCA) causes a significant decrease in both the lymphatic/plasma protein concentration ratio and distal edema.24 The total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica (TTFCA) has been noted to reduce ankle edema, foot swelling, and capillary filtration rate, as well as to improve microcirulatory parameters (including resting flux, venoarteriolar response, PO2, PCO2) in subjects with reported venous insufficiency of the lower extremities.25 HU300 (containing 17.5mg of total triterpenoids derived from Centella asiatica), two tablets twice daily, is reported to decrease venous distensibility index, reduce venous congestion, and reduce supine venous pressure after eight months in subjects with venous insufficiency, deep vein thrombosis, or perimalleolar leg ulcers.
Wound/burn healing effects: Asiatic acid, madecassic acid, and asiaticoside have been shown to stimulate the in vitro synthesis of collagen, both alone and in combination. The titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA), asiatic acid, and asiaticoside were shown to increase remodeling of a wound collagen matrix after injection into an animal model, through the stimulation of both collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Asiaticoside isolated from Centella asiatica increased hydroxyproline content, tensile strength, and collagen content of wounds after topical administration in an animal model. Asiaticoside was found to promote angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membranes in vitro.29,30 The application of topical 0.2% asiaticoside twice daily for seven days to cutaneous wounds in rats led to increased wound levels of antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin E, and ascorbic acid) and decreased lipid peroxide levels. Increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis was observed at wound sites after treatment with topical or oral extract of Centella asiatica in rats.8 An animal study found that application of topical Centella asiatica extract three times daily for 24 days to open wounds resulted in increased collagen content and tensile strength.31 An in vitro study of the effects of total triterpenoid fraction of Centella asiatica (TTFCA) on human skin fibroblasts found the extract to have no significant effect on cell proliferation, total protein synthesis, or proteoglycan synthesis; however, a significant increase in the percentage of collagen and cell layer fibronectin was observed. Asiaticoside was found to cause a dose-related increase in tensile strength after intramuscular administration of asiaticoside.
Madecassol, an asiaticoside containing compound, inhibited the biosynthesis of acid mucopolysaccharides and collagens in an animal granuloma model. Madecassol also inhibited the proliferation of human embryo fibroblasts in vitro.
Phosphatidyl Serine from Soy
Phosphatidylserine is a neurotransmitter. Phosphatidylserine supplements were once made from cow brains, but now are commonly manufactured from soy.
Phosphatidylserine is used for Alzheimer’s disease, age-related decline in mental function, improving thinking skills in young people, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, preventing exercise-induced stress, and improving athletic performance.
How does it work?
Phosphatidylserine is an important chemical with widespread functions in the body. It is part of the cell structure and is key in the maintenance of cellular function, especially in the brain.
Mental decline. Phosphatidylserine made from cow brains seems to improve attention, language skills, and memory in aging people with declining thinking skills. It is not known whether the newer products, which are made from soy and cabbage, will have the same benefit. However, there is developing evidence that plant-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory in people with age-associated memory loss.
Alzheimer’s disease. Taking phosphatidylserine can improve some of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease after 6-12 weeks of treatment. It seems to be most effective in people with less severe symptoms. However, phosphatidylserine might lose its effectiveness with extended use. After 16 weeks of treatment, progression of Alzheimer’s disease seems to overcome any benefit provided by phosphatidylserine.
Depression. There is some early evidence that phosphatidylserine might improve depression in older people.
Improving athletic performance.
Improving thinking ability.
Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein.
Glutamine is produced in the muscles and is distributed by the blood to the organs that need it.
Glutamine might help gut function, the immune system, and other essential processes in the body, especially in times of stress. It is also important for providing “fuel” (nitrogen and carbon) to many different cells in the body.
· Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Choline is similar to the B vitamins. It can be made in the liver. It is also found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts, beans, peas, spinach, wheat germ, and eggs.
It is also used for depression, memory loss, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, Huntington’s chorea, Tourette’s disease, a brain disorder called cerebellar ataxia, certain types ofseizures, and a mental condition called schizophrenia.
Athletes use it for bodybuilding and delaying fatigue in endurance sports.
Choline is taken by pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects in their babies and it is used as a supplement in infant formulas.
Other uses include preventing cancer, lowering cholesterol, and controlling asthma.
How does it work?
Choline is similar to a B vitamin. It is used in many chemical reactions in the body. Choline seems to be an important in the nervous system. In asthma, choline might help decrease swelling and inflammation.
Choline’s vital role in the production of the neurochemical Acetylcholine provides a host of cognitive benefits. It is most well known as a memory enhancer, but that is just one of dozens of positive effects it can have on the mental landscape. Perhaps the most important effect is enhanced neuroplasticity in the physical structure of the brain. This refers to the ability of neurons to form new connections through synapses, which happens when we have new experiences or make new connections of logic or insight about facts, sensory stimulus, and emotion. A brain’s ability to remain plastic is another way of describing intelligence, with the potential to adapt to and thrive in new situations. All of this begins with healthy amounts of Acetylcholine, which in turn requires choline to produce.
This thriving mental environment is then more conducive to better memory, recall of facts, feelings of mental clarity, the ability to reason and articulate thoughts clearly, coherent verbal skills, and logical thinking. Choline leads to enhanced focus and the ability to concentrate, including faster reaction times to stimulus. It is crucial for learning of all kinds. Due to its sharpening of concentration, choline’s brain benefits also make it a known therapy for symptoms of ADD and ADHD.
The above statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.